Английский язык: Экспресс-репетитор для подготовки к ЕГЭ: «Грамматика и лексика»


Test 1

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

The Bald Eagle

In 1782, soon after the United States won its independence, the bald

eagle ___ (1) as the national bird of the new country. American choose

leaders wanted the eagle to be а symbol of ___ (2) country because it they

is one of the ___ (3) birds. Today the bald eagle strong

almost ___ (4) from the country. In 1972 there ___ (5) only 3,000 disappear be

bald eagles in the entire United States. The reason for the

bird’s ___ (6) population was pollution of rivers by pesticides. Pesticides decrease

poison the fish. Eagles eat these fish and then the eggs eagles

lay have very thin shells and ___ (7). Today, the American government not hatch

and the American people ___ (8) to protect the bald eagle. The try

number of bald eagles slowly ___ (9). The American increase

national bird ___ (10), and remains а symbol of strength and courage. survive

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

Our ___ (1) in New York was spectacular. Its skyscrapers and the arrive

Statue of Liberty make а ___ (2) sight. New York has а ___ (3) beauty

of over seven million and it is probably the world’s most populate

famous city. The ___ (4) of the ‘Big Apple’ come from many inhabit

different countries. There are more ___ (5) in New York than in any nation

other place on earth. It also has more ___ (6) than any tour

other city except London, ___ (7) in the summer. ___ (8) special

come from all over the world and have а ___ (9) time. There visit

are so many sights for them to get ___ (10) about wonder

whether it’s some of the best museums in the world or the enthusiasm

charming little streets of Greenwich Village.

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Viewed from the outside, the Houses of Parliament give а firm impression of all those ___ (1) which we are supposed to value in the British form of government. The architecture gives the place а ___ (2) look, and the buildings are sandwiched between а busy square and the river making them а ___ (3) between the country house of an eccentric duke and а Victorian railway station. You have only to learn that the ___ (4) refer to each other as ‘The Honourable Member for So and So’ to complete the picture of а dignified gentlemen’s club, with of course а few ladies to ___ (5) the numbers. Sadly, over the past few years first radio, and now television, have shown the general ___ (6) what in fact goes on when bills are ___ (7) and questions are asked. The first obvious fact is that the chamber is very rarely full, and there may be only а ___ (8) of members present, some of ___ (9) are quite clearly asleep, telling jokes to their neighbour, or engaged in shouting like badly-behaved schoolchildren. There is not enough ___ (10) for them all in the chamber in any case, which is а second worrying point. Of course, television does not follow the work of ___ (11) which are small discussion groups that do most of the real work of the House. But the ___ (12) impression that we as ___ (13) receive of the workings of government is not а good one. To put it bluntly, parliament looks disorganised, is clearly behind the times and seems to be ___ (14) with bores and comedians. This is presumably why members resisted for so long the efforts of the ВВС to broadcast parliamentary ___ (15) on television.

1. a) views b) appearances c) identities d) features

2. a) fashionable b) traditional c) close-up d) notorious

3. a) mixture b) combination c) cross d) match

4. a) members b) candidates c) delegates d) senators

5. a) take away b) bring about c) make up d) set in

6. a) situation b) public с) interest d) rule

7. a) paid b) determined c) voted d) discussed

8. a) handful b) majority c) few d) number

9. a) these b) whom с) them d) others

10. a) seats b) places c) room d) around

11. a) elections b) those c) everyone d) committees

12. a) overall b) visual c) positive d) striking

13. a) audience b) often c) voters d) well

14. a) working b) inevitably c) filled d) much

15. a) matters b) committees c) speeches d) debates

Test 2

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

Tricks on April Fool’s Day In 1698, a number of Londoners received invitations

to see the lions washed in the Thames. This event ___ (1) in news describe

papers. However, the same trick ___ (2) in 1860, and again a lot of repeat

curious Londoners ___ (3) to enjoy the lions washed. In 1957 BBC come

Television played an even ___ (4) joke on its viewers. It showed hilarious

a film about a spaghetti crop ___ (5) in Southern Switzerland. grow

Agricultural workers ___ (6) long strands of spaghetti from bushes pick

and the presenter of the film ___ (7) on the uniform length of the comment

spaghetti and on the successful cultivation of ‘these vegetables’. After be

the programme there ___ (8) a lot of calls from people who not get

___ (9) the joke and wanted to know where they ___ (10) buy spaghetti bushes. can

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

Americans talk with ___ (1) of their government and ___ (2). They proud, institute

seem certain that they have more ___ (3), better laws and free

stronger leaders. But even the most ___ (4) Americans have а few doubts. patriot

___ (5) is one problem area, and so is the law. There are not educate

enough clever teachers, and too many clever ___ (6). But Americans law

feel ___ (7) that they can change things that don’t work. Americans confidence

want to be proud of their President. They like him to be good-looking,

___ (8), and a good family man. They want him to be a good ___ (9). religion, talk

They expect him to keep the prices down at home and to keep the

country looking ___ (10) abroad. power

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Have you ever asked yourself what you are working for? If you have ever had the time to ___ (1) this taboo question, or put it to others in moments of weakness or confidentiality, you ___ (2) well have heard some or all of the ___ (3). It’s the money of course, some say with а smile, as if explaining something to а small child. Or it’s the satisfaction of ___ (4) well done, the sense of achievement behind the clinching of an important ___ (5). I worked as а bus conductor once, and I can’t say I ___ (6) the same as I staggered along the swaying gangway trying to ___ (7) out tickets without falling over into someone’s lap. It’s the company of other people perhaps, but if that is the ___ (8), what about farmers? Is it the conversation in the farmyard that keeps them captivated by the job? Work is power and а sense of status say those ___ (9) have either attained these elusive goals, or feel aggrieved that nobody has yet recognised their leadership ___ (10). Or we can blame it all on someone else, the family or the taxman. I suspect, and I say this under my ___ (11), that most of us work hoping for something to ___ (12) up. We’ll win the pools, and tell the boss what we really think. We’ll scrape together the ___ (13) and open that little shop we always dreamed of, or go ___ (14) the world, or spend more time in the garden. One day we’ll get that ___ (15) we deserve, but until then at least we have something to do. And we are so busy doing it that we won’t have time to wonder why.

1. a) propose b) meditate c) consider d) launch

2. a) might b) can c) will d) should

3. a) below b) rest c) following d) latter

4. a) a work b) а job c) а task d) an effort

5. a) deal b) position c) job d) engagement

6. a) enjoyed b) wished c) hoped d) felt

7. a) make b) turn с) issue d) give

8. a) one b) case с) question d) former

9. a) people b) must c) who d) to

10. a) qualities b) status c) property d) requirements

11. a) oath b) suspicion c) breath d) pressure

12. a) move b) turn с) ease d) end

13. a) resources b) opportunities c) rest d) money

14. a) round b) over c) into d) to

15. a) ambition b) station c) vocation d) promotion

Test 3

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

Mountain Biking In the past people ___ (1) watching TV or reading enjoy

in their free time. Nowadays people are more interested in doing ___ (2) activity

which take them out of their homes. That’s why mountain biking

___ (3) a very popular sport in recent years. It is one of the ___ (4) become, reward

ways to explore the countryside. Cyclists must pay attention to the

type of path they ___ (5) on. Some paths ___ (6) for people be, design

who are on foot, so if you cycle along these, you ___ (7) inconvenience cause

to walkers. On any other path, you should still respect walkers.

Another thing which you ___ (8) to do is ___ (9) gates behind you, so ask, close

that farm animals cannot escape. If the weather is fine, you will

enjoy a wonderful day out, especially if you ___ (10) to take not forget

some food and drinks with you.

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

When the famous explorer, Columbus claimed Florida for Spain in 1492,

he had never ___ (1) eyes on it. The area’s most important early ___ (2) lay, visit

thus set а pattern that has continued for centuries. There is а

general ___ (3) amongst people, apparently quite ___ (4) with whether believe, connect

or not they’ve been there themselves, that Florida is а good place

to go. In fact, it is almost ___ (5) not to enjoy yourself in Florida possible

today, given the wonderful ___ (6) of facilities available to tourists. select

Some of the world’s most popular tourist ___ (7) are located in the attract

state whose ___ (8) beaches welcome 40 million people each year. sand

These days it seems ___ (9) to describe Florida’s geography and point

climate. After all, few people would have ___ (10) in finding it on difficult

а map and most would know what weather to expect there.

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.After more than fifty years of television, it might seem only obvious to conclude that it is here to ___ (1). There have been many objections to it during this time and ___ (2) а variety of grounds. Did it cause eye-strain? Was the ___ (3) bombarding us with radioactivity? Did the advertisements ___ (4) subliminal messages, persuading us to buy more? Did children turn to violence through watching it, either because so ___ (5) programmes taught them how to shoot, rob, and kill, or because they had to do something to counteract the hours they had ___ (6) glued to the tiny screen? Or did it simply create а vast passive ___ (7), drugged by glamorous serials and inane situation ___ (8)? On the other hand, did it increase anxiety by sensationalising the news (or the news which was ___ (9) by suitable pictures) and filling our living rooms with war and political unrest? ___ (10) in аll, television proved to be the all-purpose scapegoat for the second half of the century, ___ (11) for everything, but above all, eagerly watched. For no ___ (12) how much we despised it, were bored by it, or felt that it took us away from the old paradise of family conversation and hobbies ___ (13) as collecting stamps, we never turned it off. We ___ (14) staring at the screen, aware that our own tiny ___ (15) was in it if we looked carefully.

1. a) long b) stay c) exist d) be

2. a) with b) over c) by d) on

3. a) screen b) danger c) machine d) reason

4. a) contain b) of c) take d) having

5. a) that b) far c) many d) what

6. a) almost b) spent c) quite d) madly

7. a) programme b) personality c) audience d) tense

8. a) comedies b) programmes c) perhaps d) consequently

9. a) taken b) presented c) capable d) accompanied

10. a) Taken b) All c) Somewhat d) Thus

11. a) broadcasting b) looking c) blamed d) ready

12. a) one b) matter c) difference d) reason

13. a) known b) even c) described d) such

14. a) refused b) received c) turned d) kept

15. a) fault b) reflection c) situation d) consciousness

Test 4

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

The American People Black, white, rich, poor – you can find them all in the USА, one of big

the ___ (1) countries in the world. The great American idea ___ (2) that all these people always be

should become something new. They should leave their old ___ (3) behind and become life

American. In some ways, the idea ___ (4). work

Many people ___ (5) where their grandparents came from. forget

They share the ideas, experiences, and feelings that make up the American culture. now ask

But new questions ___ (6). Some people wonder if too much ___ (7). lose

They are becoming more interested in the countries their families leave

once ___ (8). They are not sure if new immigrants should try ___ (9) their own forget

languages and cultures so completely. Americans talk а great deal about

how wonderful it is to be American. The reason may be because they need to

keep ___ (10) themselves that that is what they are. remind

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

Dear Sir or Madam,

I read your ___ (1) in International Business advertise

magazine and I am writing for more information concerning entry ___ (2) require

for the course in English Language. Could you tell me what language ___ (3) qualify

are required? I do not possess the First Certificate and would like to know

if ___ (4) on the course depends on having the FCE? In fact, as I am an accept

___ (5) for an international company I would be interested in a course account

which focuses on language ___ (6) for both social and develop

___ (7) purposes. I would also like to know the ___ (8) from the busy, distant

college to London and if ___ (9) at all classes is obligatory, attend

or whether an occasional ___ (10) for purposes of travel be acceptable. absent

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,

Nelson Fernandez

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Nobody knows for certain what the origin of music was. Music is certainly older than poetry and painting but as early man had no way of ___ (1) it, we can only ___ (2) what it sounded like. Watching а child ___ (3) on а drum with its hands or а ___ (4) of wood, it is easy to see that this is the simplest of instruments. It does not ___ (5) much effort to produce а rhythm on it. Wall paintings show what some of the first instruments ___ (6) like. Early civilisations had already discovered the three basic ___ (7) of producing music: blowing into а tube, striking an object, and scraping а string. We know that western music comes from the ___ (8) Greeks. The musical scales we use now are ___ (9) on certain sequences of notes which the Greeks used to create а particular ___ (10). Until the 16th century, most players of instruments were ___ (11) performers, but as music became more ___ (12), orchestras and musical groups began to ___ (13). This ___ (14) about the writing of music to be played by several musicians at one time. This can certainly be ___ (15) the birth of modern music.

1. a) recording b) playing c) producing d) performing

2. a) think b) reckon c) guess d)realise

3. a) hitting b) knocking c) crashing d) banging

4. a) slice b) point c) piece d) shape

5. a) make b) call c) take d) do

6. a) looked b) appeared c) felt d) sounded

7. a) forms b) manners c) systems d) ways

8. a) ancient b) old c) aged d) antique

9. a) raised b) based c) established d) supported

10. a) spirit b) temper c) mood d) humour

11. a) separate b) lonely c) unique d) single

12. a) widespread b) enlarged c) expanded d) extended

13. a) turn b) appear c) spring d) be

14. a) produced b) affected c) caused d) brought

15. a) appointed b) called c) decided d) named

Test 5

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

One morning Mr Sherlock Holmes was sitting in his room in Baker Street.

His friend Dr Watson was standing near the window ___ (1) at a walking stick. look

This stick ___ (2) by a strange visitor the day before. The words forget

‘To Dr Mortimer’ ___ (3) on it. Dr Watson had already been examining write

it for half an hour but ___ (4) say anything about it. Suddenly not can

Sherlock Holmes ___ (5), ‘The owner of this stick has a dog which is say

___ (6) than a terrier. I have noticed the marks of a dog’s ___ (7) large, tooth

on the stick. Probably the dog often ___ (8) the stick behind the carry

master.’ ‘I wonder why this man wanted to visit us,’ asked Dr Watson.

‘Well, we soon ___ (9),’ answered Sherlock Holmes. ‘I can hear know

the bell ___ (10).’ ring

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

School Then and Now Parents and teachers are always making ___ (1) compare

between the time when they were ___ (2) and the child

present ___ (3). They say everything was better than it generate

is today, especially in ___ (4). For example, they say they educate

used to work much ___ (5) in school, and that nowadays, we hard

aren’t very interested. I ___ (6), because we spend hours agree

every day doing homework after our lessons or ___ (7) for revise

___ (8). I wonder if our parents really had to study so much examine

after school every day. In my opinion, it is no ___ (9) to exaggerate

say we have forgotten how to play. I think one reason why kids behave

___ (10) in class is because they need to get rid of stress.

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.According to а group called The Voices Foundation, everyone has а singing voice as well as а speaking voice somewhere inside them. This, they say, should be encouraged from an early ___ (1) because it provides the best, and the cheapest, ___ (2) on which to build an understanding of music. ___ (3) the Foundation’s ideas, lies the teaching of the Hungarian composer Zoltan Kodaly. He observed that song can ___ (4) а key part of the relationship between mother and child almost from birth. This is especially ___ (5) of more traditional societies, like those of West Africa, where some small children are ___ (6) to sing literally hundreds of songs, all of which have been learnt by ___ (7). But many modern children first ___ (8) to an understanding of music when they learn to play an instrument, and ___ (9) some teaching of the theory of music is usually а part of this, their relationship with the music on the ___ (10) is often а mechanical one. The ___ (11) of the Voices Foundation is that а natural ___ (12) for rhythm, harmony and musical structure, the very ___ (13) we appreciate in the greatest musicians, can only be achieved through the exploration of music with the voice from the start. The Foundation has, therefore, ___ (14) itself the task of developing а singing-centred musical education programme that could ___ (15) junior pupils all over the world.

1. a) start b) life c) time d) age

2. a) ground b) basis c) root d) plot

3. a) Behind b) Beneath c) Besides d) Between

4. a) grow b) do c) form d) make

5. a) fact b) true c) real d) actual

d) fit 6. a) able b) expert c) skilled

7. a) repeat b) heart c) memory d) mind

8. a) come b) reach c) go d) arrive

9. a) however b) despite c) although d) whether

10. a) lines b) notes c) book d) page

11. a) rule c) trust d) belief b) certainty

12. a) awareness b) touch c) grasp d) feeling

13. a) degrees b) qualities c) measures d) practices

14. a) let b) set c) put d) cut

15. a) benefit b) favour c) gain d) profit

Test 6

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

A Practical Joke Mr and Mrs Parker were having a quiet day at home. Their

18-year-old daughter was away in Wales ___ (1) with a friend. Suddenly stay

the phone ___ (2). A hoarse voice told Mr Parker that his daughter ring

___ (3) and that he had to pay a ransom of $2,000. He was also warned that kidnap

if he ___ (4), he would never see his daughter again. The voice then not pay

gave him instructions about where and when to hand over the money. one

Mr Parker took the ___ (5) train to Wales. He went to the hotel and gave

the briefcase with the money to a woman in a scarf and a raincoat. At 11 p.m.

the same evening, to his great relief, his daughter came back home. She happy

looked ___ (6) than ever and could hardly stop herself from ___ (7) laugh

when she handed him his briefcase with $2,000. It turned out that she decide

and her friend ___ (8) to play a practical joke. The joke ___ (9) but, work

strangely enough, Mr and Mrs Parker ___ (10) it as much as their not enjoy

daughter did!

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

How to Learn Vocabulary Students are under enormous pressure to learn

huge amounts of vocabulary but they are rarely given ___ (1) as to how to guide

go about it. They have a ___ (2) to try and learn long lists by tend

heart, but this is hardly the most ___ (3) approach to the problem. efficiency

The golden rule is to do lots of ___ (4) at regular intervals. Secondly, revise

students should concentrate on words with the highest ___ (5), particularly frequent

everyday words which also improve the students’ spoken ___ (6). fluent

They should also take every opportunity to use the words in communication –

there is considerable ___ (7) evidence that learners who like psychology

using the foreign language improve their oral ___ (8) and their perform

overall ___ (9) of the language much more rapidly than acquire

students who are ___ (10) to practise the language in real situations. reluctance

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Keeping fit and staying healthy have become а growing industry. ___ (1) apart from the amount of money spent each year on doctors’ ___ (2) and approved medical treatment, huge sums are now spent on health foods and ___ (3) of various kinds, from vitamin pills to mineral water, not to mention health clubs and keep-fit ___ (4) and videos. We are more concerned than ever, it seems, ___ (5) the water we drink and the air we breathe, and are smoking less, though not yet drinking less alcohol. This does not appear to mean that ___ (6) and sneezes have been banished, or that we can all expect to live to а hundred. To give а personal example, one of my friends, who is а keep-fit ___ (7), а non-smoker and teetotaller, and who is very ___ (8) about what he eats, is at present languishing in bed with а wrist in ___ (9) and а badly sprained ankle. Part of his healthy ___ (10) is to play squash every day after work, and that ___ (11) for the ankle. He also cycles everywhere, and if you have ever tried to cycle through the rushhour traffic with а sprained ankle, you will understand ___ (12) he acquired the broken wrist. For _____ (13), it seems, is not just а matter of а good ___ (14) and plenty of exercise. Too much exercise can be harmful, as many joggers have discovered. Eating the right food can easily become an obsession, as can overworking, which you might have to do so as to be able to afford your ___ (15) of the squash club, your mountain bike, your health food, and а few holidays in peaceful and healthy places.

1. a) Poles b) Far с) Quite d) So

2. a) prescriptions b) surgeries c) hospitals d) payments

3. a) medications b) cures c) drugs d) remedies

4. a) books b) television c) advice d) enthusiasts

5. a) than b) about c) for d) hence

6. a) colds b) coughs c) flu d) fevers

7. a) fanatic b) follower c) fad d) person

8. a) interested b) varied c) detailed d) particular

9. a) crutches b) plaster c) treatment d) danger

10. a) living b) lifetime c) lifestyle d) liveliness

11. a) is b) caters c) depends d) accounts

12. a) how b) that c) whenever d) thus

13. a) fit b) this c) health d) all

14. a) diet b) eating c) menu d) recipe

15. a) share b) visit c) membership d) subscription

Test 7

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

What Can Computers Do?

Computers and microchips _____ (1) part of our everyday lives: we become

read magazines which _____ (2) on computer, we buy things with the produce

help of computers, we pay bills _____ (3) by computers. Just _____ (4) prepare

а phone number involves the use of а sophisticated computer system. dial

In the past, life without computers was much _____ (5) than it is today. difficult

The _____ (6) computers were able to multiply long numbers, but they one

_____ (7) do anything else. Nobody _____ (8) stories about robots not can

and space travel, but now computers are able to do almost all difficult jobs. believe

What makes your computer such а miraculous device? It is а calculating machine speed

that _____ (9) up financial calculations. It is а personal communicator

that _____ (10) you to interact with other computers and with people around enable

the world. And you can even use your PC to relax with computer games.

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

A Challenge for Europe

Although recently there has been a small _____ (1) in the number of people out reduce

of work in Europe, _____ (2) is still the number one _____ (3) employ, society

problem facing the 15 member states of the European Union. Moreover,

_____ (4) of opportunity between men and women is still an issue that equal

_____ (5) in many countries have not come to grips with. In _____ (6) political, professional

such as law and engineering women are still noticeable by their

absence. _____ (7) still discriminate against women in a number of employ

ways even if their _____ (8) are the same as those of men. It would qualify

be a pity if the _____ (9) of the EU on an economic level were marred achieve

by _____ (10) in the vital area of social policy. fail

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Trees are amongst the biggest and longest-living things on Earth, some dating back longer than the oldest buildings. But _____ (1) being nice to look at, trees also _____ (2) an important role in improving the quality of our lives. On a world-wide _____ (3), forests help to slow down the effects of global warming by using up the gas _____ (4) as carbon dioxide and giving _____ (5) the oxygen we need to breathe. At local neighbourhood level, trees also _____ (6) important environmental benefits. They offer shade and shelter, which in _____ (7) reduces the amount of energy needed to heat and cool _____ (8) buildings; at the same time, they also remove other impurities from the air we breathe. Urban trees are especially important because for many people they provide the only daily _____ (9) with the natural world. What’s _____ (10), urban trees also provide a home for birds, small animals and butterflies. _____ (11) the trees we would lose the pleasure of seeing these creatures in our cities. Regrettably, _____ (12), trees in cities are now coming under _____ (13). There is a limit to the level of pollution they can _____ (14) and, down at street level, their roots are being seriously _____ (15) by the digging needed to make way for modern telephone, television and other cables.

1. a) as far as b) as long as c) as soon as d) as well as

2. a) play b) show c) act d) serve

3. a) scale b) size c) range d) area

4. a) called b) known c) titled d) referred

5. a) in b) away c) up d) out

6. a) bring b) make c) take d) find

7. a) turn b) place c) order d) reach

8. a) opposite b) close c) next d) nearby

9. a) junction b) touch c) contact d) taste

10. a) more b) else c) most d) other

11. a) Throughout b) Beyond c) Without d) Outside

12. a) therefore b) whilst c) however d) despite

13. a) risk b) threat c) danger d) warning

14. a) stand in for b) face up to c) put up with d) fall back on

15. a) concerned b) disturbed c) interfered d) involved

Test 8

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

Street Styles

Many people, especially young people, wear things which express their ideas

and feelings about life. If a boy _____ (1) very short, almost shaven hair, have

people expect him _____ (2) right wing politics. But boys with very have

long hair _____ (3) to have left wing politics. A boy who wears a leather think

jacket _____ (4) in bits of metal will probably ride a motorbike. The cover

rules of fashion are not as rigid as they once _____ (5) and today’s be

teenagers _____ (6) any particular trend at all. But teens are very not follow

influenced by _____ (7) and they have a desire to buy more luxurious celebrity

items. Street styles _____ (8) by the big fashion designers. In fact, not create

the fashion designers often use ideas from street fashions. But some

leaders of British fashion have enough ideas of _____ (9) own. One of them they

is Jean Muir, whose designs let her be one of the _____ (10) designers. good

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

I have only been once to an art _____ (1). In fact, the Tate in London exhibit

was my _____ (2) to modern art, but although the gallery was introduce

quite interesting, I found the pictures difficult to understand. The _____ (3) paint

in the exhibition were by famous _____ (4) from all over the world. Our art

guide told us about each painting, and I listened carefully to her _____ (5). explain

After she had given us а _____ (6) of а painting by Picasso, 1 asked her describe

what it all _____ (7). She said we should not look for meaning but for _____ (8), mean, please

as the most important thing was to enjoy the shapes and colours.

_____ (9), I found this advice а complete _____ (10). person, reveal

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Whenever we read about the natural world nowadays, it is generally to be _____ (1) dire predictions about its imminent destruction. Some scientists go so _____ (2) as to assert that from now on, the world can no longer be called ‘natural’, insofar as future processes of weather, _____ (3), and all the interactions of plant and animal life will no longer carry on in their time-honoured way, unaffected by _____ (4). There will never be such а thing as ‘natural weather’ again, say such writers, only weather _____ (5) by global warming. It is hard to know whether to believe such _____ (6) of doom, possibly because what they are saying seems too terrible to be _____ (7). There are other equally influential scientists who argue that climate has changed many times over the _____ (8), and that what we are experiencing now may simply be part of an endless cycle of change, rather than а disaster on а global _____ (9). One cannot help wondering whether these attempts to wish the problem away _____ (10) underline the extent to which western industrialised countries are to blame for upsetting the world’s _____ (11). It is not our fault, they seem to be saying, because everything is all right, really! One certain _____ (12) which is chilling in its implications, is that there is no longer anywhere on the earth’s _____ (13), whether in the depths of the oceans or in the polar wastes, which is not _____ (14) by polluted air or _____ (15) with empty cans and bottles. Now we have to come to terms with understanding just what that means, and it is far from easy.

1. a) made b) given c) told d) granted

2. a) much b) often c) really d) far

3. a) change b) atmosphere c) climate d) even

4. a) beings b) man c) people d) humans

5. a) built b) manufactured с) affected d) organised

6. a) prophets b) champions c) warriors d) giants

7. a) stopped b) true c) guessed d) here

8. a) top b) again c) centuries d) world

9. a) sense b) form c) scale d) existence

10. a) simply b) to с) chat d) or

11. a) future b) ecology с) balance d) population

12. a) fact b) must с) fault d) and

13. a) planet b) atmosphere c) anywhere d) surface

14. a) full b) stained c) breathing d) only

15. a) even b) recycled c) littered d) bothered

Test 9

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

Things That Go Bump In The Night

It was quite late on a Friday night. Bill and Lora were having supper in their

new house. Things still felt a bit strange so they _____ (1) much notice not take

when they heard someone _____ (2) about noisily in the move

house next door. From the windows they _____ (3) see figures in the can

front garden. Bill and Lora assumed that their neighbours _____ (4) have

some sort of party. ‘That’s all right,’ said Bill. ‘Our neighbours dislike big

_____ (5). I hope they _____ (6) us long.’ Not long after, party, not disturb

they heard the front door shut and the house went very quiet. Bill and Lora

went to bed and _____ (7) all about it. At breakfast early the next day, forget

they heard someone _____ (8) loudly. Their neighbours arrived back shout

home and discovered that some _____ (9) _____ (10) all their furniture thief, take

and valuables from the house.

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

The most _____ (1) pop group in history was the Beatles and the success

most _____ (2) bands of the 1960s and 1970s were male bands. The excite

Spice Girls were _____ (3) when they became _____ (4) in the usual, fame

1990s, but now female pop groups are not only common but quite interest

_____ (5) from а _____ (6) point of view as well. But what happens music

when а schoolgirl suddenly becomes very _____ (7) and well known? wealth

She leaves behind the _____ (8) life other girls lead, earns bore

а lot of money and buys x_____ (9) clothes. She gets _____ (10) to expense, expense

trendy parties. Will she forget all her old schoolfriends?

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Have you ever thought about the future? One of the most amazing predictions I have heard _____ (1) the twenty-first century is that we will be living longer and longer. Scientists will have _____ (2) up with а cure for а lot of the most _____ (3) diseases that people die of at the moment. They say that _____ (4) the year 2050, the average person’s lifespan will have _____ (5) to one hundred years. They also _____ (6) that work will take _____ (7) less of our lives and we will have more _____ (8) time to spend. Robots, which will look more and more _____ (9) human beings, will have taken _____ (10) а lot of the boring everyday _____ (11) we do today. In the next five years, the Japanese will have _____ (12) а robot that understands human speech. This will _____ (13) about а big change in the way we live, and some people see robots as а _____ (14) to human freedom. They are afraid that we will not be _____ (15) to control them and that in the end, they will control us.

1. a) to b) about c) across d) up

2. a) turned b) made c) come d) found

3. a) common b) usual c) everyday d) known

4. a) until b) by c) up to d) on

5. a) gone b) come c) turned d) risen

6. a) predict b) tell c) wait d) advise

7. a) on b) over c) up d) away

8. a) break b) enjoy c) fun d) free

9. a) as b) like c) similar d) how

10. a) up b) off c) over d) in

11. a) jobs b) works c) employment d) occupations

12. a) discovered b) found c) done d) invented

13. a) bring b) turn c) take d) come

14. a) damage b) dream c) threat d) problem

15. a) reaching b) able c) manage d) succeed

Test 10

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

The National Health Service in GB

The NHS (the national health service) in GB _____ (1) centrally and organize

medical insurance is compulsory. There _____ (2) a number be

of private medical insurance schemes in the country. The _____ (3) one big

is BUPA. These days such schemes _____ (4) increasingly popular become

as being more convenient. The modern _____ (5) of the NHS are difficulty

the same as those faced by equivalent systems in other countries. The need

number of old people _____ (6) medical care _____ (7) dramatically grow

since 1998. But the country spends _____ (8) money per person on health care little

than any other country in the western world. One possible reason for this is

the way that GPs _____ (9). The money which they get from the pay

government _____ (10) on the number of consultations they not depend

perform, it depends on the number of registered patients.

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

Primary schools in London are trying out an ambitious plan through which

young children get an _____ (1) to serious music. The idea comes introduce

from а group of famous (_____ 2) who are concerned about the music

_____ (3) of certain types of classical music. They see the plan as survive

one possible _____ (4) to the problem of declining audiences at classical solve

concerts. Their _____ (5) is that an interest in classical music should argue

be developed in early _____ (6). They reject the idea that children child

are _____ (7) in serious music or necessarily find it boring. The group interest

goes into а school and gives а live _____ (8) of а short classical perform

piece and then this is followed by an _____ (9) of how the instruments explain

work. These sessions have proved so _____ (10) that they have now success

become а regular feature in some schools.

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.When faced with some new and possibly bewildering technological change, most people react in one of two _____ (1). They either recoil from anything new, claiming that it is unnecessary, or too _____ (2) or that it somehow makes life less than _____ (3). Or they learn to _____ (4) to the new invention, and eventually _____ (5) how they could possibly have existed without it. _____ (6) computers as an example. For many of us, they still represent а _____ (7) to our freedom, and give us а frightening sense of а future in which all _____ (8) will be taken by machines. This may be because they seem mysterious, and difficult to understand. Ask most people what you can (_____ 9) а home computer for, and you usually get _____ (10) answers about how ‘they give you information’. In fact, even those of us who are familiar with computers, and use them in our daily work, have very little idea of how they _____ (11). But it does not take long to learn how to operate а business programme, even if things occasionally go wrong for no apparent reason. Presumably much the same happened when the telephone and the television became _____ (12). What seems to alarm most people is the speed of _____ (13) change, rather than change itself. And the _____ (14) that are made to new technology may well have а point to them, since change is not always an improvement. As we discover during power cuts, there is а lot to be said for the oil lamp, the coal fire, and forms of entertainment, such as books or board games, that don’t have to be _____ (15) in to work.

1. a) moments b) kinds c) ways d) types

2. a) complicated b) much c) obscure d) tiresome

3. a) formerly b) lively c) personal d) human

4. a) adapt b) react c) conform d) use

5. a) decide b) wonder c) suppose d) admit

6. a) Discuss b) Propose c) Take d) Thus

7. a) hazard b) risk c) control d) threat

8. a) measures b) decisions c) chances d) instructions

9. a) run b) apply c) learn d) use

10. a) vague b) such c) up with d) hundreds

11. a) are b) work c) manage d) consist

12. a) in existence b) widespread c) through d) extensive

13. a) future b) machinery c) physical d) technological

14. a) objections b) appliances c) criticisms d) fears

15. a) wired b) batteries c) plugged d) connected

Test 11

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

The Benefits System in GB

The _____ (1) way in which people get help is by direct payments of easy

government money. This help comes in various ways and _____ (2) by pay

the Department of the Social Security. Anyone below the retirement age

who _____ (3) for a certain minimum period of time can receive unemployment work

benefit _____ (4) colloquially as ‘the dole’. All retired people _____ (5) know, entitle

to the standard old-age pension, provided that they _____ (6) pay

their insurance contributions for most of their working _____ (7). After life

a certain age, even people who still _____ (8) can receive their pension earn

though at a slightly reduced rate. The government pension, however,

_____ (9) very high. That’s why Personal Pension Plans not be

_____ (10) in July 1988 to extend pension choice and encourage people introduce

to build up a retirement fund.

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

If you’re interested in getting, then what you need is а training

programme. Although aimed at improving physical fit _____ (1), this programme fit

can also be _____ (2) in such а way that it helps in the _____ (3) design, develop

of particular athletic skills. There is а range of different _____ (4) to active

choose from and а growing amount of scientific (_____ 5) to explain know

the effects of each one. When you begin training, it is important gentle

to start _____ (6), raising the _____ (7) of the programme in а intense

gradual way. Although it is important to work sufficiently hard impress

to make an _____ (8) on your physical condition, the activities shouldn’t

be _____ (9). It is _____ (10), therefore, to ignore warning pain, wise

symptoms such as sharp or persistent pain in particular muscles.

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Modern technology has brought about enormous improvements in communications and yet many people are still very worried _____ (1) using the latest computer technology. I am often _____ (2) to meet colleagues who still don’t know what the ‘е’ in e-mail stands for and they are too _____ (3) to ask. They assume you have to be skilled _____ (4) computers to send а message via е-mail but in fact it is _____ (5) thing in the world. It is also _____ (6) to send an e-mail message _____ (7) to send an ordinary letter or а ‘snail’ message which also takes _____ (8) longer. An e-mail message is only _____ (9) more expensive than а local telephone call to send; on top of the call itself you also have to pay а fee to your ‘server’. If you send а letter by _____ (10) mail it will take а couple of days to get there whereas an e-mail will not take _____ (11) than а few seconds. Once you become _____ (12) to using the system you will be _____ (13) at how much more _____ (14) it is than other means of communication. Of course, before you have access to е-mail, you will need а fairly _____ (15) computer, which can be quite expensive.

1. a) for b) about c) at d) with as

2. a) surprising b) irritating c) surprised d) irritated

3. a) embarrassing b) embarrassed c) tired d) tiring

4. a) about b) into c) to d) in

5. a) simplest b) the more simple c) simpler d) the simplest

6. a) cheaper b) more cheaper c) the cheapest d) the cheaper

7. a) as b) than c) that d) from

8. a) much b) more c) as d) lot

9. a) little b) slightly c) less d) least

10. a) second-hand b) low-paid c) part-time d) first-class

11. a) more long b) longest c) as long d) longer

12. a) capable b) accustomed c) clever d) good

13. a) amazed b) puzzled c) experienced d) pleased

14. a) confident b) certain c) efficient d) skilful

15. a) strong b) great c) powerful d) large

Test 12

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

The History of Father’s Day

Father’s Day is an occasion to honor your dad and express gratitude for his

love and support. Most _____ (1) including the US, the UK and Canada country

celebrate Father’s Day on the _____ (2) Sunday of June. The idea of three

celebrating Father’s Day _____ (3) by Ms Sonora Louise Smart Dodd suggest

in 1909. Mrs. Dodd’s father, William Smart, _____ (4) when his wife died

in childbirth. Despite the obvious hardships, Mr. Smart proceeded widow

to raise the newborn along with his five other _____ (5) by himself. child

It wasn’t until Sonora Dodd _____ (6) an adult that she realized the become

strength and selflessness her father _____ (7) in raising his children show

as a single parent. President Wilson approved of the festival in 1916 but

it was President Johnson who signed a Proclamation _____ (8) the declare

celebration of Father’s Day in 1966. Thanks to Sonora, Father’s become

Day _____ (9) a hugely popular festival and _____ (10) around celebrate

the world.

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

Medical research has found that happiness has а strongly beneficial

effect on health. The healing properties of _____ (1) are such that laugh

humour is now being used alongside more _____ (2) courses of tradition

_____ (3) in some hospitals. In а London children’s hospital, for example, treat

two clowns are provided for the _____ (4) of patients. Doctors entertain

say that these clowns are _____ (5) in making the children feel success

better. It seems that when we laugh, there can be а _____ (6) in reduce

both blood pressure and the amount of _____ (7) in our muscles. tense

Although it is _____ (8) to prove it at the moment, this may also mean that possible

people who feel unhappy and who are, therefore, _____ (9) to laugh likely

so much, suffer more often from physical _____ (10). ill

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Until the early part of this century there was certainly а distinction between popular music, the songs and dance _____ (1) of the masses, and what we have come to call _____ (2) music. Up to that point, however, there were at least some points of contact _____ (3) the two, and perhaps general recognition of what made а good voice, or а good song. With the development of _____ (4) entertainment, popular music split away and has gradually _____ (5) а stronger life of its _____ (6), to the point where it has become incompatible with _____ (7) classics. In some respects, it is now dominated by the _____ (8) of youth culture, so that а concert by Elton John is just as much а fashion _____ (9), and other artists may be promoting dance styles, or social _____ (10). For this reason, it is impossible to talk about popular music as if it were а unified art. The kind of music you like may _____ (11) on what kind of person you are. Curiously, there are now classical musicians who have _____ (12) the status of rock stars, and have been marketed in the same way. This seems to suggest that many young people enjoy classical music but do not wish to be associated with the _____ (13) of those who are traditionally supposed to enjoy it. Or it may simply be that recording companies have discovered that there is an insatiable _____ (14) for ‘sounds’, and that classical music is beginning to sound exciting to а generation _____ (15) on rock but now settling into affluent middle-age.

1. a) halls b) tunes c) musicians d) artists

2. a) rock b) modern c) underground d) classical

3. a) with b) between с) by d) of

4. a) mass b) live с) recorded d) the

5. a) founded b) lived с) developed d) suggested

6. a) supporters b) self с) fans d) own

7. a) other b) the с) some d) further

8. a) promotion b) discovery с) tendency d) survival

9. a) as b) however с) event d) design

10. a) service b) grace с) protest d) science

11. a) depend b) identity с) suppose d) be

12. a) lost b) admired с) penetrated d) achieved

13. a) number b) dislike с) lifestyle d) meaning

14. a) desire b) sale с) interest d) outlet

15. a) raised b) carrying с) dependent d) listening

Test 13

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

The stars of American journalism can build up reputations which make

them _____ (1) known than most members of the Cabinet. Although good

each one _____ (2) for а single big city newspaper, their articles work

may _____ (3) in hundreds of local papers across the nation. reproduce

To be successful it _____ (4) always necessary to be а graduate in not be

journalism. In 1955 the Chicago Sun Times _____ (5) an untrained engage

housewife from Iowa Esther Lederer to take over the give

‘Anne Landers’ column, _____ (6) comforting answers to all _____ (7) query

on personal problems. Thirty years later her ‘Anne Landers’ column

_____ (8) by eighty million people. Meanwhile, her twin-sister read

_____ (9) an almost identical column, ‘Dear Abby’. By 1987 these amazing have

twins, then aged 67, _____ (10) yet. not retire

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

А magazine _____ (1) asked people what they thought the most recent

useful _____ (2) of the last century was. It is а very _____ (3) invent, interest

question, since technology has _____ (4) our lives today. Lots of transform

people said cars, but I _____ (5). Although cars have made life easier agree

in some ways, I believe they have serious _____ (6). The worst advantage

thing about cars is that they are so _____ (7). They also cause noise

а lot of _____ (8). Other people said TV. Of course, _____ (9) will pollute, entertain

never be the same again and it can be _____ (10) to watch TV after relax

а long day. And what’s your opinion?

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.Thirteen-year-olds do not spend as much money as their parents suspect – at least not _____ (1) the findings of a _____ (2) survey, Money and Change. The survey _____ (3) three hundred teenagers, 13–17 years old, from _____ (4). By the time they _____ (5) their teens, most children see their weekly allowance rise dramatically to an amazing national average of $8. Two thirds think they get _____ (6) money, but most expect to have to do something to get it. Although they have more cash, worry about debt is _____ (7) among teenagers. Therefore, the _____ (8) of children _____ (9) an effort to save for the future. Greater access to cash _____ (10) teenagers does not, however, mean that they are more irresponsible _____ (11) a result. The economic recession seems to have encouraged _____ (12) attitudes to money, even in case of children at these ages. Instead of wasting what pocket _____ (13) they have on sweets or magazines, the 13-year-olds who took _____ (14) in the survey seem to _____ (15) to the situation by saving more than half of their cash.

b) based on c) relying on d) according to

1. a) counting on 2. a) late b) recent c) latest d) fresh

3. a) included b) contained c) counted d) enclosed

4. a) entire b) all over c) complete d) the whole

5. a) reach b) get c) make d) arrive

6. a) acceptable b) adequate c) satisfactory d) enough

7. a) gaining b) heightening c) increasing d) building

8. a) most b) maximum c) many d) majority

9. a) make b) do c) have d) try

10. a) among b) through c) between d) along

11. a) like b) as c) for d) in

d) cautious 12. a) aware b) knowing c) helpful

13. a) cash b) money c) change d) savings

14. a) part b) place c) share d) piece

15. a) reply b) answer c) respond d) return

Test 14

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

The United States has strong political and military ties to governments in

all areas of the world. America’s alliances _____ (1) by its formidable back

military and nuclear forces. Over 2 million _____ (2) are members of the man

armed forces. About one _____ (3) of the United four

States military personnel serve over seas. Most of its overseas

forces _____ (4) in Western Europe under provisions of the NATO. This concentrate

military alliance _____ (5) the defense of member nations. guarantee

Since 1949, when the alliance _____ (6), the United States create

_____ (7) as Western Europe’s military leader. America’s political act

and military strength _____ (8) by its powerful economy. Although it is neither generate

the world’s _____ (9) nor _____ (10) nation, its economic output large

is twice Russia’s, three times Japan’s, and six times Germany’s. populous

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

Thanks to the Internet, we are now living in a _____ (1) village. globe

We have more _____ (2) about other countries than ever before. inform

We know as much about the _____ (3) in the US as in Russia. _____ (4) situate, pollute

which is produced in one country will affect other countries, too.

For example, nuclear power is not _____ (5) only for one country danger

but is an _____ (6) problem. If we do not take action soon, nation

the _____ (7) of a nuclear disaster is very real. We should all possible

_____ (8) our rubbish – not hope ‘green’ people will do it for us. cycle

Some people think _____ (9) resources will go on forever, but they won’t. nature

We all have an _____ (10) to protect the environment. oblige

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.The three blank spaces _____ (1) the wall of the Frankfurt Schirn Gallery are probably more photographed than the old paintings which _____ (2) there until last Thursday. That was the day when thieves _____ (3) two paintings by JMW Turner, which were _____ (4) loan from London’s Tate Gallery. In fact, as theft increases, empty walls are _____ (5) an increasingly familiar _____ (6) in Europe’s galleries. The thieves are usually _____ (7) of professional gangs who study the layout of their target in _____ (8) beforehand. They are becoming better at overcoming the tightest security. The thieves of Frankfurt waited _____ (9) the gallery closed at 10 pm, overpowered the security guard before he could _____ (10) on the alarm system and _____ (11) with the paintings to a waiting car. The pictures are _____ (12) at $65 million and, since they are _____ (13) famous to sell, police suspect that the thieves will hold them to ransom. A $100,000 reward is being _____ (14) for information. Unfortunately European Union policy has made it easier for thieves to _____ (15) borders and harder for police to follow them. To discourage thieves, galleries may have to turn themselves into high security fortresses.

1. a) in b) over c) on d) along

2. a) hung b) stayed c) held d) fixed

3. a) robbed b) stole c) burgled d) borrowed

4. a) for b) at c) in d) on

5. a) getting b) becoming c) having d) growing

6. a) sight b) scene c) site d) look

7. a) guest b) members c) partners d) owners

8. a) fact b) addition c) detail d) general

9. a) for b) while c) before d) until

10. a) turn b) go c) rely d) set

11. a) escaped b) parted c) got d) hid

12. a) measured b) charged c) valued d) appreciated

13. a) too b) enough c) very d) quite

14. a) stated b) offered c) held d) taken

15. a) swap b) alter c) change d) cross

Test 15

1. Read the text and put the words at the end of each line into the correct form.

The White House In Washington, D.C., 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue is а

very special address. It is the address of the White House, the home of

the president of the United States. President Washington never _____ (1) in live

the Presidential Palace. The _____ (2) president to live there was John one

Adams, the _____ (3) president of the United States, but his wife Mrs Adams two

really _____ (4) her new house because it was not warm enough! not like

In 1812 the United States and Britain _____ (5) to war. Many buildings go

_____ (6), including the Presidential Palace. After the war James burn

Hoban, the original architect, partially _____ (7) the president’s home. rebuild

To cover the marks of the fire, the building _____ (8) white. Since paint

that time it _____ (9) as the White House. Nowadays the White House know

_____ (10) lots of tourists from all over the world. attract

2. Read the text. Use the word given at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line.

More and more animals are fighting for _____ (1) nowadays, and it is not survive

only _____ (2) who are to blame. Thousands of fish die every hunt

year as а result of the _____ (3) _____ (4) of waste in legal, dump

rivers by factories all over Europe. _____ (5) are often carried investigate

out to discover who is _____ (6) for these ecological disasters, response

but even when the offenders are found, the _____ (7) for this punish

kind of _____ (8) is not as severe as it should be. Factories will only reform behave

once the public _____ (9) to stop buying their products, and not before. threat

It is the only _____ (10) to а very serious problem. solve

3. Choose the most suitable word for each space.If you tried to visualise a Paris caf e, you would probably _____ (1) plates of golden croissants and cups of steaming hot coffee. Whatever you picture, a teapot is _____ (2) to be part of the scene. Although the _____ (3) of taking afternoon tea is in many _____ (4) an English custom, its popularity is now _____ (5) through Paris. Tea salons have been fashionable in Paris _____ (6) early this century. One of the oldest tearooms in Paris, ‘Angelina’, was _____ (7) in 1903. The atmosphere has a charming turn-of-the-century feel and the menu includes a mouth-watering _____ (8) of cream cakes, meringues and almond macaroons. Tearooms in Paris are unfortunately often overlooked by tourists snared by the bright lights and bistros. But for those who know, tea drinking in saloons is serious _____ (9). Menus often give you _____ (10) descriptions of the teas’ _____ (11), or even what time of the day is _____ (12) for drinking a certain tea. For serious connoisseurs there is only one tearoom _____ (13) visiting ‘Marriage Freres’. In this sunny tearoom you’ll be surrounded by towering green plants and _____ (14) by white-suited waiters. In the adjoining shop, enormous chests of China tea are displayed alongside old canisters containing 350 _____ (15) of tea from more than 30 countries.

1. a) think b) imagine c) consider d) figure

2. a) rarely b) not c) unlikely d) hardly

3. a) means b) fact c) view d) habit

4. a) ideas b) ways c) types d) forms

5. a) spreading b) moving c) going d) swelling

6. a) for b) until c) since d) before

7. a) founded b) set c) run d) found

8. a) mass b) selection c) mixture d) collection

9. a) affair b) trade c) business d) commerce

10. a) tiny b) particular c) special d) detailed

11. a) origins b) births c) sources d) beginnings

12. a) conventional b) relevant c) appropriate d) reliable

13. a) right b) worth c) deserving d) worthy

14. a) shown b) ordered c) served d) brought

15. a) makes b) variations c) types d) breeds